Discovery / Science Channel’s “How It’s Made” Headphones episode
Have you ever wondered what it takes to make earbuds? AudioSpice gives you a glance into the production aspect of making headphones in a China factory. In this short tour you will see some of the machines, and work that’s involved. A lot of us wear earbuds on a daily basis, but have no idea how they are made. Audio Spice gives you an inside look.
Video tutorial on how to troubleshoot and test a relay on a 12 volt application. Relays are used for numerous applications on your vehicle or small engines such as lawnmowers, snowblowers, tractors, etc to switch a high amperage circuit using low amperage. These applications can be either lighting, fuel pump, auxiliary fans, hvac fan, horns, window defrosters, power windows, etc. Some relays can be more complicated than others consisting of extra electronic components like diodes or transistors to remove the surplus of electricity and prevent voltage spikes, they can also be either normally open (NO) or normally closed (NC), and there can be two or more separate relay devices in one unit.
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-2 jumper cables
-12v power source
-depending on the circuit you are testing, first we can see if the relay’s switching portion is operating correctly by turning the vehicle’s key on or turning on it’s circuit
-you should be able to hear an audible clicking sound, you can also hold your finger on the relay and feel that clicking sound
-if not, the relay can be faulty or the circuit is not getting power to switch the relay
-remove the relay
-using a multimeter set on the voltage setting, check to see if the vehicle’s wiring is sending voltage to the relay by testing the relay’s plug
-we want to check the coil side of the relay, you will have to refer to either the vehicle’s wiring diagram or the relay’s diagram to determine which pins operate the coil
-if there is no power at the plug, then there will be an issue with the vehicle which can include a blown fuse, faulty ground, faulty power wire, faulty switch, etc
-to test the coil on the relay, using a multimeter using the resistance setting, we are looking for a reading between 50 to 120ohms, anything outside that may mean the coil is faulty or isn’t in the best working condition
-if the coil is faulty, the relay will need to be replaced
-to test the contacts, review the diagram to determine if the relay operates at a normally open (NO) or normally closed (NC) position
-if it’s normally open (NO) the switching portion of the relay should read no continuity or an open circuit
-if it’s normally closed (NC) the switching portion of the relay should read continuity or a closed circuit
-now supply 12 volts to the coil portion of the relay to power it up and operate the switching portion using the jumper cables
-you will hear an audible click and feel the click once power is supplied
-to test the switch portion we will be using a multimeter on the resistance setting to determine if there is continuity or not
-if it’s normally open (NO) the switching portion of the relay should read continuity or a closed circuit when the coil is powered up
-if it’s normally closed (NC) the switching portion of the relay should read no continuity or an open circuit when the coil is powered up
-some relays can be opened up, others not
-if you notice high resistance on the switching portion, if you can open up the relay, the contacts can be cleaned
-clean the contacts using a non conductive sand paper such as aluminum oxide, then following up with some contact cleaner
-if you find the relay faulty, some relays can be switched from other sources of the vehicle just to ensure that there is an issue with that relay
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Internet of Things, Automobile Electronics Supporting FPCB Industry Growth Rate
Flexible Printed Circuit Boards Market report, published by Allied Survey, forecasts that the international market is expected to reach 27 billion by 2022, growing at a CAGR of 10.4Pct from 2016 To 2022.
Asia-Pacific completely outclassed the worldwide market, in terms of revenue, making up upwards of 46Pct in 2015, followed by North America.
FPCBs are widely used across applications which include LCD display, cellphone screen, connectivity antennas, and flexible circuitry employed in re-chargeable batteries. Surge in requirement for consumer electronic products, rise in passion for Internet of Things (IoT), and adopting of FPCBs in car applications move the market growth rate. Additionally, increase in desire for computerized robots is believed to deliver prosperous possibilities to market players. Multilayer FPCBs directed the FPCBs area, and is likely to keep this trend through the forecast period of time. Still, the rigid-flex FPCBs segment is thought to watch significant development in the future, on account of the small size and minimal power consumption.
Among consumer, electronics led the worldwide market in 2015, making up about 30% market share. Nevertheless, car electronics is predicted to expand at the highest possible CAGR of 10.7%, owing to increase in requirement for tough products with elevated efficiency.
Asia-Pacific was the major revenue contributor in 2015, and is likely to maintain its dominance in the coming years, owing to increase in quantity of electronic applications. Also, innovations in electronic products and industrial systems are expected to improve the FPCBs market growth rate, largely in the Parts of Asia, for example China, Japan, Oceania, and India.
Flex PCBs are hugely productive interconnectivity solutions employed for a wide selection of electronic gadgets with advanced circuitry. Also, they supply a lot of benefits which include high efficiency and reduced system maintenance tasks. Multilayer FPCBs represent almost 30% of the total FPCBs market, caused by their resilience and high efficiency. Aside from that, considerable desire for electronics applications and user shift towards compact printing to achieve better efficiency are predicted to pump up its usage in the electronic products, car, and other market sectors, claims Jeshin Jayamon, Research Expert, Semiconductor & Electronics Research, Allied Survey.
LAMEA is forecasted to grow at the highest possible CAGR during the analysis period of time, owing to increase in convenient appliances and surge in the usage of FPCBs in car applications. Also, technological enhancements to triumph over power loss challenges in extreme situations are predicted to present financially rewarding chances for market gamers anytime soon.
Key Discoveries Of The Flex Printed Circuit Boards Industry
In 2015, multilayer FPCBs dominated the worldwide FPCBs market, as far as revenue, and is predicted to grow at a CAGR of 10.7% within the forecast period of time.
Consumer electronics headed the market, making up roughly 30% market share in 2015.
China was the major shareholder in the Asia-Pacific FPCBs market, making up about 34% in 2015.
The crucial gamers operating in the FPCB market take advantage of new product roll-out as their preferred strategy to increase their market foothold. The primary players profiled in this report incorporate NOK Corporation (Nippon Mektron Ltd.), Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. (SEI), Fujikura Ltd., Multi-Fineline Electronix, Inc., Zhen Ding Technology Holding Limited (ZDT), Nitto Denko Corp., Interflex Co., Ltd., Career Technology, FLEXium Interconnect, Inc., and ICHIA Technologies Inc.
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Check out RepairSurge if you need automotive repair manuals: http://www.repairsurge.com/?hop=adiycarguy
This is how to repair a body control module circuit board on a General Motors vehicle. This one is from a 2000 Cadillac Escalade, but there are similar modules in other GM vehicles like the Camaro. The symptoms are that the windows and the radio will be intermittent or stop working completely.
IoT, Auto Electronics Stimulating FPCB Industry Advancement
Flexible Printed Circuit Boards Market report, created by Allied Research, states that the international market is expected to acquire 27 billion dollars by the year 2022, escalating at a CAGR of 10.4Per-cent from 2016 To 2022.
Asia-Pacific reigned over the worldwide market, for revenue, comprising over 46% in 2015, and then North America.
FPCBs are frequently used across applications for instance , LCD display, mobile display screen, connectivity antennas, and flexible circuitry employed in re-chargeable batteries. Increase in requirement for consumer electronic items, rise in passion for Internet of Things (IoT), and adoption of FPCBs in auto applications generate the market enlargement. On top of that, boost in desire for programmed robots is envisioned to deliver successful opportunities to market gamers. Multilayer FPCBs guided the FPCBs industry, and is likely to sustain this trend over the forecast time period. Nevertheless, the rigid-flex FPCBs segment is predicted to witness substantial development in the long term, as a result of the compact size and low power usage.
Among consumer, consumer electronics overpowered the worldwide market in 2015, comprising close to 30% share. In spite of this, motor vehicle electronics is predicted to get bigger at the highest CAGR of 10.7%, attributable to boost in sales of tough gadgets with increased efficiency.
Asia-Pacific was the big revenue donor in 2015, and is likely to keep its importance in the foreseeable future, thanks to boost in number of electronic applications. Furthermore, innovations in electronic gadgets and industrial systems are anticipated to lift the FPCBs market growth, largely in the Parts of Asia, for example , China, Japan, Oceania, as well as India.
Flexible PCBs are very highly efficient interconnectivity solutions employed for a variety of electronic gadgets with complex circuits. Furthermore, they offer a good number of benefits for instance , high efficiency and reduced system maintenance tasks. Multilayer FPCBs comprise pretty much 30% of the entire FPCBs market, caused by their resilience and high efficiency. Also, sizeable desire for electronics applications and client shift towards compact printing to accomplish better efficiency are anticipated to fuel its consumption in the electronic gadgets, auto, and also other industry sectors, states Jeshin Jayamon, Research Analyzer, Semiconductor & Electronics Research, Allied Survey.
LAMEA is predicted to increase at the highest CAGR all through the analysis period, thanks to boost in transportable appliances and surge in the consumption of FPCBs in auto applications. Furthermore, technological improvements to rise above power loss problems in extreme circumstances are predicted to present highly profitable opportunities for market competitors very soon.
Essential Discoveries Of The Flexible PCB Market
In 2015, multilayer FPCBs dominated the worldwide FPCBs market, for revenue, and is anticipated to increase at a CAGR of 10.7Pct during the forecast period.
Electronic products led the market, comprising about 30% market share in 2015.
China was the important shareholder in the Asia-Pacific FPCBs market, comprising roughly 34% in 2015.
The key competitors running in the FPCB market now utilize new product release as their recommended approach to expand their market foothold. The key players shown in this report comprise of NOK Corporation (Nippon Mektron Ltd.), Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. (SEI), Fujikura Ltd., Multi-Fineline Electronix, Inc., Zhen Ding Technology Holding Limited (ZDT), Nitto Denko Corp., Interflex Co., Ltd., Career Technology, FLEXium Interconnect, Inc., as well as ICHIA Technologies Inc.